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2018.03.02

管理血壓由DASH Diet入手

地中海飲食密碼
誠品分享講座-愛自己專題

很多人都知道要「鹽控」飲食, 又或者把食鹽與鈉掛鈎。其實食鹽是膳食中攝取鈉的主要來源,卻非全部,醬料、加工食品等亦暗藏不少;吸取過多的鈉會增加患高血壓的機會,引發中風及冠心病的風險1。美國食品藥物管理局(FDA)剛於6月公布新指南草案,建議大眾應努力減少鈉的攝取量,由每天攝取3400mg減少到2300mg2。要維持理想血壓,控鹽是第一步,並要配合一套健全的飲食模式。

1X1

控制食鹽份量
廣受醫學界認同的DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet飲食模式, 建議進食含有豐富鉀、 鎂、 鈣的蔬菜水果、低脂肪或脫脂的乳製品、全穀物、家禽、魚和果仁,並且少脂肪、少紅肉、少甜食,以助遠離高血壓3。最重要的是限制食鹽的份量4,美國疾病控制與預防中心 (CDC) 便建議成人一天攝取少於2,300mg的鈉5

當體內鹽份增加時,正常情況下腎臟會製造多巴胺 (Dopamine) 鬆弛血管以排泄鹽份,可惜中國人欠缺這個多巴胺反應,因此容易出現高鹽引起的高血壓6。透過DASH Diet可有效降低血壓,血壓正常人士採用這個食譜後,其血壓的收縮壓會下降6mmHg,而舒張壓則下降3mmHg。而高血壓人士採用這食譜後,預計血壓會分別下降11mmHg和6mmHg6

自煮健康菜式
突然間轉變飲食模式並非易事,健康自煮是良好飲食的第一步,就以一些夏日菜式

菠菜秋葵意粉伴青醬
材料:
•  秋葵 6根,切片
• 菠菜半斤,摘取菜葉部分
•  乾蔥 2個,切絲
•  意粉適量

青醬:
•  芫荽1杯,切碎
•  蔥(只取綠色部分)1杯,切碎
•  蒜蓉 約半杯

做法:
1. 將芫荽、蔥、蒜蓉和鹽拌勻,加入1湯匙橄欖油、少許鹽及胡椒粉拌成青醬備用。
2. 意粉以沸水煮10分鐘,加少許鹽作調味。
3. 先以適量橄欖油爆乾蔥絲,然後放入青醬煮約1分鐘。最後加進菠菜及秋葵,再煮約1分鐘。
4. 撈起意粉,瀝水後與煮好的蔬菜青醬拌勻, 即可上碟。

特色
• 秋葵含有豐富鉀質及維他命等,有益心臟健康8
(由於菠菜含大量維他命K,服用薄血丸者應避免進食,以免影響藥物效果9 ,可考慮以其他蔬菜代替。)

鮮菠蘿炒雞柳
材料:
•  去皮雞腿肉 1隻
•  鮮菠蘿 適量,切片
•  青紅椒 各1隻,切件
•  子薑 1件,去皮切片

做法:
1. 雞肉切成長條,加適量糖、粟粉、生抽及少許胡椒粉拌勻,醃至入味。
2. 以適量橄欖油炒熟雞柳後,先放入青紅椒快炒。
3. 最後加菠蘿及子薑,快炒一會即可上碟。

特色:
•  菠蘿本身味道甜酸,可省卻使用其他調味料,青紅椒則增加了菜式的纖維含量6

資料來源: 
  1. Reduction of Dietary Sodium and Sugar. Centre for Food Safety. Available at: http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/programme_rdss/Sodium_Facts_and_Myths_for_Consumers.html. Accessed January 2017.
  2. Draft Guidance for Industry: Voluntary Sodium Reduction Goals: Target Mean and Upper Bound Concentrations for Sodium in Commercially Processed, Packaged, and Prepared Foods. FDA. Available at: www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ucm494732.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery. Accessed January 2017.
  3. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH — What Is the DASH Eating Plan? Available at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/hbp-dash-how-plan-html. Accessed January 2017.
  4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH. Available at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/hbp-dash-introduction-html. Accessed January 2017.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. GET THE FACTS: Sodium and the Dietary Guidelines. Available at: www.cdc.gov/salt/pdfs/sodium_dietary_guidelines.pdf. Accessed January 2017.
  6. The Hong Kong Nephrology Group. DASH Diet. Available at: kidney.hk/en/community-works/dash-diet/. Accessed January 2017.
  7. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Description of the DASH Eating Plan. Available at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash. Accessed January 2017.
  8. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institue. Following the Dash Eating Plan. Available at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash/followdash. Accessed January 2017.
  9. Livestrong.com. Nutrition in Lady Finger. Available at: www.livestrong.com/article/327479-lady-fingers-nutrition/. Accessed January 2017.
  10. National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Important information to know when you are taking: Warfarin (Coumadin) and Vitamin K . Available at: www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient_education/drug_nutrient/coumadin1.pdf.  Accessed January 2017.

CVS17011C/JAN